In some instances, the spelling of a clipped form changes based on how the word is pronounced, how it sounds to the ear. For example, the clipped form of refrigerator is spelled fridge (not frig), favorite becomes fave (not fav), microphone is shortened to mike (not mic), and bicycle and tricycle become bike and trike (not bic and tric).
9. Fridge: This term, unusual not only in that the full form, refrigerator, has been clipped at both ends but also in that the spelling has been altered to reflect the pronunciation, is suitable for informal writing only.
Blended words are formed when two or more words are combined through dropping several letters which will give the new word formed a different meaning while Clipped words are formed by dropping one or more syllables of a longer word or phrase without changing its original meaning. Both blending and clipping are processes of word formation.
There is one other form of Eponym. These are words that are initially brand names but now are used to reference entire categories of things. One of the most popular eponyms is a band-aid. While band-aid is the name brand that makes adhesive bandages, most people use the term to refer to any adhesive bandage, regardless of who makes it. Jello is another example.
When most people think of Australia, one of the first words that comes to mind is outback. The outback is the vast (usually arid) interior and rural part of Australia. But outback as a word had its origins in the U.S.
So where did bonzer come from? No one is exactly sure. It's slang, which means that it was likely in spoken use long before it showed up in writing. Our earliest written evidence for it right now is from the early 1900s, though that's liable to change. A number of etymologies have been proposed for it. One theory that has been thoroughly discredited is that bonzer is an adaptation of two Chinese words that mean "good gold." Two other theories, each with their lexicographical supporters, tie bonzer to the French bon, meaning "good," or the English bonanza, referring first to a large and rich mineral deposit, and then later to anything that was valuable or rewarding. (One Australian dictionary favors the French etymology; the OED and our own dictionaries favor the English one.)
It's also a treasure trove of Australian bush talk: the aforementioned swagman, coolibah, and billabong. The latter two words, coolibah and billabong were borrowed into English from two indigenous languages: coolibah, which refers to a particular gum tree, was borrowed from a dialect of Gamilaraay, and billabong, which can refer to a blind channel that leads out of a river, or the pool that forms from such a channel (sometimes called a backwater), or a dry riverbed that fills seasonally, was borrowed from Wiradhuri. The Wiradhuri word billabaŋ means "a watercourse that only runs after rain."
Australian English is full of words based on this formula. Barbie, of the now-infamous "throw another shrimp on the barbie," is short for barbecue; brekkie is short for breakfast; mozzie is short for mosquito; postie is short for postman; Aussie is short for Australian; and the list goes on. Diminutive suffixes aren't just limited to -ie, either: the word aggro, another colloquialism, is a clipping of aggressive with the diminutive -o tacked on the end, for instance.
Note how it goes a little longer on iPhone than Android when it comes to displaying the clipped message. The company provides a blog teaser and a large CTA to view the rest of it on their website. But they still let advertising rule a large part of the real estate.
According to Marchand (1969), clippings are not coined as words belonging to the standard vocabulary of a language. They originate as terms of a special group like schools, army, police, the medical profession, etc., in the intimacy of a milieu where a hint is sufficient to indicate the whole. For example, exam(ination), math(ematics), and lab(oratory) originated in school slang; spec(ulation) and tick(et = credit) in stock-exchange slang; and vet(eran) and cap(tain) in army slang. Clipped forms can pass into common usage when they are widely useful, becoming part of standard English, which most speakers would agree has happened with math/maths, lab, exam, phone (from telephone), fridge(from refrigerator), and various others. When their usefulness is limited to narrower contexts, such as with tick in stock-exchange slang, they remain outside standard register. Many, such as mani and pedi for manicure and pedicure or mic/mike for microphone, occupy a middle ground in which their appropriate register is a subjective judgment, but succeeding decades tend to see them become more widely used.
OpenGL (Open Graphics Library) is a cross-platform, hardware-accelerated, language-independent, industrial standard API for producing 3D (including 2D) graphics. Modern computers have dedicated GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) with its own memory to speed up graphics rendering. OpenGL is the software interface to graphics hardware. In other words, OpenGL graphic rendering commands issued by your applications could be directed to the graphic hardware and accelerated.
OpenGL is operating as a state machine. That is, once a state is set, the value of the state persists until it is changed. In other words, once the coordinates are translated or rotated, all the subsequent operations will be based on this coordinates.
Back-formation is either the process of creating a new lexeme (less precisely, a new "word") by removing actual or supposed affixes, or a neologism formed by such a process. Back-formations are shortened words created from longer words, thus back-formations may be viewed as a sub-type of clipping.
Most broadband seismic stations need a large enough gain control to detect fairly weak signals from teleseismic events. With this setting, however, a large local or regional earthquake would generate seismic wave amplitudes that are too strong to be recorded on-scale by the broadband seismometers. In other words, the amplitude would be saturated (e.g. exhibiting as trapezoid) if the amplitude reaches the upper-limit dynamic range of the seismometers9,10,11. Amplitude-clipped data are typically assumed to be worthless and are seldom used in waveform-based applications (e.g., full waveform inversion, focal mechanisms, and receiver function). For a clipped waveform even basic processing (e.g. bandpass filtering, and removing instrument response) is problematic because of the aliasing of the frequency components (also called frequency leakage)12, since most basic processing procedures involve convolution or deconvolution that are basically frequency-based operations. To perform these basic processing procedures, one could select only the unclipped portions of the waveform, but this would require applying a damping taper function on the unclipped portions of the waveform that are close to the clipped portions, which causes additional waste of seismic data (usually 30 to 50 samples).
The seismic records close to the epicenter convey much more valuable information of the earthquake source and the regional structures than data from stations further away. By definition typically waveform amplitudes are larger closer to the earthquake epicenter and therefore more prone to be clipped. With the increasing density of seismic stations (especially for temporary seismic array), we anticipate that the total number of clipped waveforms is only going to increase in the future. Therefore, it is imperative for us to find a way to productively use clipped data.
There have been previous studies that investigate how to use clipped data. Galbraith & MacMinn9 use a two-sided interpolation operator derived by least-squares to accomplish the task. Karabulut & Bouchon10 recover the clipped part of the waveform using cubic spline interpolation. In the presence of many consecutive clipped samples these two methods would encounter large errors and not be feasible. Yang & Ben-Zion11 consider waveform corrections based on a linear interpolation applying the Kriging method and using similar unclipped waveforms from nearby smaller events. The Kriging method is shown to perform well in the presence of few consecutive clipped samples. In cases with six or more consecutive clipped samples, the similar waveform method generally performs better, especially if there is a high cross-correlation coefficient between the clipped waveform and the reference waveform. However, corrections using similar waveforms are likely to produce overly large errors when the cross-correlation coefficient is small. In fact, it is sometimes difficult to obtain similar waveforms, especially near new faults or where there is no previous record available.
Here, we assume that the seismic data are band limited and the clipped parts of the waveform share the same frequency content as the un-clipped parts. Using these two basic assumptions, we can use digital image processing and seismic exploration field methods to repair clipped waveforms. We reconstruct (or restore) clipped records using an advanced signal-processing technique: the projection onto convex sets (POCS) method13,14,15, which is popular in studies of restoration of images or seismic data that have inadequate spatial sampling. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first to restore consecutively clipped data using the POCS method. Theoretical analyses and numerical experiments show that the POCS method can substantially improve the availability of useful near-field data recordings. 2b1af7f3a8