The definitive snare drum solo-method book. Includes the 26 American Standard Rudiments, the Percussive Arts Society Rudiments, an extensive list of Drum Corps Hybrid Rudiments and 25 rudimental contest solos. A must for anyone that's serious about playing the snare drum. Includes a compact disc of all 25 solos, performed by Matt Savage.
Another collection of 25 rudimental snare drum solos ranging from easy to extremely advanced. Includes exercises and an up-to-date, extensive hybrid rudiment list. The solos found in "Just Desserts" are written by some of the hottest snare drummers in the country and include several championship solos. Great for festival and auditions!
In rudimental drumming, a form of percussion music, a drum rudiment is one of a number of relatively small patterns which form the foundation for more extended and complex drumming patterns. The term "drum rudiment" is most closely associated with various forms of field drumming, where the snare drum plays a prominent role. In this context "rudiment" means not only "basic", but also fundamental. This tradition of drumming originates in military drumming and it is a central component of martial music.
The first recorded instance of rudimental fife and drum refers to the Swiss military at the battle of Sempach in 1386. Initially, Swiss rudiments were very influential to the French system, which in turn was the basis for many other rudimental systems. Switzerland produced two distinct rudimental cultures, the wider Swiss Ordonnanz Trommel practiced in Zurich, Valais, and Geneva, and the Basel version or Basler Trommeln.
The Basler Trommeln rudiments, in contrast to the Swiss Ordonnanz Trommel, are much more widely known and practiced outside of Switzerland due to Fritz Berger's publications, Das Basler Trommeln, Werden und Wesen and Instructor for Basle Drumming, and travels to the United States in the 1930s. His student Alfons Grieder continued to promote Basel style drumming in North America for many years. The two Swiss systems differ in several ways, including that Basel drumming rudiments draw heavily from the French system while Swiss rudiments are indigenous, and that Basel drumming was notated in a set of symbols until the 20th century (Berger devised his own notation system for export that was much more legible) while Swiss rudiments were written in standard notation centuries earlier. Swiss Ordonnanz rudiments are nearly unknown outside of Switzerland, while Basel rudiments are featured (after the 1930s) in other systems around the world, such as the Scottish, American, and Hybrid. The Top Secret Drum Corps is a prominent organization from Basel Switzerland that utilizes traditional Basel rudimental drumming along with other rudimental influences.
Spain used its own rudimental system, documented as far back as 1761, with Manuel de Espinosa [es] publication of Toques de Guerra. Composed mostly of single strokes, the system is extremely simple with only around eight to ten named patterns.
The Italian peninsula was home to fife and drum traditions as far back as the 1400s. During the 19th century, at least 3 distinct styles of drumming were practiced: Austrian style  drumming in the northern regions adjacent to the Austrian Empire, a central Italian style in Sardinia, Piedmont, and the Papal States, and a southern style in Naples and Sicily. With the unification of the Kingdom of Italy in the 1870s, the central Italian style was adopted over the Austrian or Sicilian as the official pan-Italian rudimental system.
Sweden had drummers on military payrolls as early as 1528. The Swedish rudimental style has some unique features and rhythmic interpretations, however it draws significant influence from both French and Prussian sources. The first written manual dates from 1836 with little variation in style until the 20th century. After the 1960s the drum parts in standard military music became simplified compared to their earlier incarnations.
Russian drumming was originally brought in from abroad specifically to emulate the drumming of other nations. Dutch drumming was used verbatim in the 17th century. This gave way to a more distinct Russian style in the 18th century under Peter I. Imperial Russian military units stopped using drummers around 1909 but the USSR reintroduced drumming to the military in the 1920s. Russia actually has no names or specific sticking for rudimental patterns but a selection of rolls and ruffs of various lengths are present in military music. Youth Pioneer groups use simplified military signals, though the rudiments taught in these groups use American terms.
British rudimental manuals with decipherable rudiments date back as far as 1634 with the publication of Thomas Fisher's Warlike Directions or the Soldiers Practice which shows at least 4 ruff-based rudiments. A more thorough manual appeared in 1760, Spencer's The Drummer's Instructor. British military drumming had already been exported to the American Colonies by the time of the American Revolution in the 1770s. The anonymously authored Young Drummers Assistant was published around 1780 and was an influential book on both sides of the Atlantic. The British system was further refined for the 19th century by Samuel Potter in 1817 with his book The Art of Beating the Drum. In the 18th century, drummers uniforms were reverse color from the rest of their military unit, but after the War of 1812, and coincidentally during Samuel Potter's service, their uniforms were switched to the standard color scheme so as not to stand out in battle. Samuel's son, Henry Potter, a noted instrument maker, would later publish an updated drum manual called Authorised Sergeant Drummers' Manual. In 1887, the War Office published Drum and Flute Duty for the Infantry Branch of the Army  which is one of only a few pre-20th century publications to feature the 17 stroke roll. In modern times, every infantry battalion in the British military has a rudimental Corps of Drums except for Irish, Scottish, and Rifle Battalions which feature Pipe Bands and their associated style of Scottish drumming.
The National Association of Rudimental Drummers, an organization established to promote rudimental drumming that included George Lawrence Stone and William F. Ludwig, Sr., organized a list of 13 essential rudiments and second set of 13 additional rudiments to form the Standard NARD 26 in 1933. This was largely based on Strube's 25 rudiments from 1870, with a single addition, the single stroke roll.
Later in the 20th century there were several notable variations and extensions of rudimental drumming from teachers like Charles Wilcoxon, author of All-American Drummer and Modern Rudimental Swing Solos, and Alan Dawson, whose "Rudimental Ritual" was popular at Berklee College of Music in the 1970s.
Drum Corps International was founded in 1971 bringing together drum corps from around North America to compete, some of which had been in existence since the 1930s or 1940s (though many others were formed as late as the mid-1960s). From the outset, the drummers steadily expanded the rudimental vocabulary from the traditional American military and NARD repertoire to include Swiss rudiments as well as Hybrid rudiments that combined elements of multiple unrelated rudiments into new, more complex patterns.
Beginning in the early 1990s, rudimental instruction began to focus heavily on hybrid rudiments. Edward Freytag's 1993 Rudimental Cookbook and Dennis Delucia's 1995 Percussion Discussion  both feature significant hybrid rudiment instruction. This trend continued into the 21st century with John Wooton's 2010 Rudimental Remedies, Bill Bachman's 2010 Rudimental Logic, and Ryan Bloom's 2019 Encyclopedia Rudimentia significantly focusing on hybrid corps-style rudiments as well as older standards.
In the 21st century there are four principal rudimental drumming cultures: Swiss Basler Trommeln, Scottish pipe drumming, Anglo-American ancient drumming, and American modern drumming (or DCI hybrid drumming). Other organized rudimental systems include the French, Dutch, German (Prussian), Swedish [sv], Trommeslått [no], Bavarian, Austro-Hungarian, Italian, Belgian, Mexican [es], Russian [ru], Swiss Ordonnanz Trommel (non-Basel, poorly understood outside of Switzerland) systems, which are still studied and performed on a small scale in their home countries. There is also a distinct historic Spanish rudimental culture, though this system is no longer widely used, as well as a similarly defunct Sicilian system.
There is a movement in the German-speaking areas of Europe, led by Claus Hessler and Percussion Creativ, to revise rudimental practices and combine the French and Basel systems with some of the modern American rudiments into a single Rudimental Codex of 42 rudiments. The Rudimental Codex has been submitted to UNESCO as an intangible World Heritage Site.
Historically, the modern Drag was known as a Ruff (or Rough) if played closed and a Half Drag when played open. Ruff can also refer to a single stroked set of grace notes preceding a regular note. In American playing the 3 Stroke Ruff has 2 single stroked grace notes before the primary or full note and a 4 Stroke Ruff has 3 singles before the primary note. Other rudimental systems have differing sticking methods and names for similar notation figures. Though still used and taught by drummers and drum teachers in practice, the 3 Stroke Ruff and 4 Stroke Ruff are not officially listed on the NARD or PAS rudiment sheets and the term Drag has eclipsed Ruff (or Rough) for the double stroked rudiments, in both open or closed execution, according to the current PAS standard terminology.
A hybrid drum rudiment is when two rudiments are combined into one rudiment. For example, the PAS #30 Flam Drag is a simple hybrid combining the traditional PAS rudiments #20 Flam and #31 Drag. A hybrid can also be created by adding a prefix before a rudiment or a suffix at the end of the rudiment in the form of extra notes or a rudimental pattern. 2b1af7f3a8