About The Book Maintenance Engineering And Management Book Summary:This text is an accessible and comprehensive guide to the principles, practices, functions and challenges of maintenance engineering and management. With a strong emphasis on basic concepts and practical techniques throughout, the book demonstrates in detail how effective technical competencies in maintenance management can be built in engineering organizations.
Through this research, the existing hotel maintenance practices of Hong Kong will be explored, covering the maintenance performance assessment, resource allocation, considerations for outsourcing, attitude towards multi-skilling, maintenance costs and benchmarking. With these data and analysis, it is hoped to formulate some index and key performance indicators for reference by hotel operators to gauge/improve their maintenance management/practices if at all possible. Reference would be made to the set of key performance indicators for facilities management, including subjective and quantitative measures identified by Hinks and McNay (Hinks and McNay, 1999).
It is generally accepted that good equipment maintenance practices can improve the reliability of the power system; maintenance has become the prominent management issue. Thus, a benchmark process is adopted to search for optimum maintenance practices to improve the overall maintenance effectiveness/efficiencies and for comparison with its peers/competitors.
A Facilities Management/Manager (FM) would normally resume the entire maintenance works of a hotel. Out-tasking is a common practice in the field of facilities management; its usage outnumbers that of outsourcing (Kleeman, 1994). When applied to asset maintenance, one has to be aware of the pros and cons of outsourcing (Dubbs, 1992; Kleeman, 1994; Embleton and Wright, 1998; Hubbard, 1993). Although FMs want outsourcers to perform well, several outsourced contractors fail to achieve the desired performance. FMs require professional negotiation, financial and interpersonal skills to implement outsourcing to vendors or service providers.
Multi-skilling is a form of working arrangement to enhance engineering staff's competency through proper training. Multi-skilled training offers staff the ability to individually undertake a wider range of tasks, and increase the flexibility of allocating day-to-day maintenance duties. This would better enhance staff's ability, enhance the overall quality and reduce staffing costs ultimately.
The senior management has to consider appropriate optimisation of maintenance costs and resource allocation among in-house, in-house plus multi-skilling training and outsourcing. Section E of the questionnaire is designed to obtain a survey on this. More knowledge about maintenance cost distributions (routine, corrective, preventive, emergency) would enable hotel operators to optimise resources. Preventive Maintenance would be more emphasised than Corrective Maintenance, to project better control and reduce system failures, and thus have better control over maintenance expenditure. The costs breakdown would reveal the degree of effectiveness/ineffectiveness and efficiencies/inefficiencies that occurred in the past.
The success of a hotel relies principally on satisfying customers' wants/expectation through quality of services (hospitality, guestroom, food/breverage, leisure facilities, if any, etc) and also cost control, which subsequently rely on proper hotel management and maintenance management.
The senior management would adopt Multi-skilling to transform mono-skilled staff to minimise maintenance costs, through proper training. According to this research, the major obstacles, as shown in Table 6, are as follows: front-line maintenance technicians' dissatisfaction at doing more tasks (3.49), time constraint on providing adequate internal training (3.46) and shortage of manpower to promote and monitor multi-skilling (3.29) are crucial factors to implement such a scheme, while financial constraints on supporting the plan of multi-skilling (2.73) does not appears to be very significant.
For developing a maintenance strategy and programme, the senior management would rate: Health and safety (4.15), energy consumption (4.12) and guest expectation (4.12) as the main considerations for maintenance decision-making. As the hotel industry is linked to a nation's/country's image, any mishaps would ruin its reputation worldwide. Energy consumption would no doubt be an essential item to trim down a hotel's operation cost. These could be reduced by constantly implementing an effective Energy Management System and reviewing Energy Saving Opportunities. Exceeding guests expectation is crucial in the hotel business. A better maintenance strategy and programme would certainly aid in this aspect.
Tissue-engineered constructs used for corneal repair must mimic the native cornea to be able to perform normal physiological functions, which are critical for the maintenance of the living tissue. According to Kishore et al., 2016, preservation of the biochemical composition and tissue structure of the native cornea by employing optimal decellularization methods appears to be a promising approach for corneal tissue engineering . Two types of hydrogels are used for this application: collagenous and non-collagenous hydrogels. Collagen matrices formed as gels, foams, and sponges are used for corneal applications. A tissue-engineered collagen sponge matrix has been shown to maintain the phenotype of human corneal cells . Non-collagenous materials that include gelatin, keratin, chitosan, and silk have also been used. 2b1af7f3a8